Custom-made Buddhist statue style selection
The Gandhara region (present-day northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan) was located in northwestern ancient India and was the gateway from Central Asia to India. In the 1st century, the earliest Buddha sculptures appeared in the Gandhara region, with mostly wavy hair, deep eyes and high noses, wearing overcoats, with a strong Hellenistic sculptural style, known as Gandhara style. At the end of the 5th century, Buddhist statues in Gandhara were severely damaged by wars and faded away, and their artistic style was inherited in Swat and Kashmir, and new artistic styles were derived.
2. Cho Shu Luo style:
The region of Muda (present-day northwest of the middle reaches of the Ganges), located in southern ancient India, was an important Buddhist center during the reign of the Kushan dynasty. At the end of the 1st century, Buddha sculptures appeared under the influence of the Gandhara style, modeled on local Indians, with a spiral pattern on the head and thin clothing, known as the Qiula art style. Much of the content of the Moujira style was absorbed by the later Gupta style.
3. Gupta style:
The Gupta dynasty, which ruled North India, Central India and the entire Ganges Valley, was the heyday of Indian Buddhism and the golden age of Buddhist figurative art. Buddhist statues of this period inherited and absorbed the Gandhara and Drake styles, creating the Gupta style that followed the generations. At that time, the centers of Buddhist statues were in the Mudor and Sarnat, and the two places had different styles of statue making, forming the Sarnar style of the Gupta era respectively. The Gupta style of statue influenced Central, East and Southeast Asia, and also had a profound influence on Chinese Buddhist statues.
2. Buddhist statues in the Swat area
Located in the northern part of the Gandhara region (present-day Swat Valley region in northern Pakistan), Swat belongs to the ancient Gandhara region, and is known in Chinese literature as Yousu State, Wucang and Udana. Buddhist sculptures found in the Swat Valley region have a unique artistic outlook and are known as the Swat style. Before the 6th century, Buddhist iconography in the Swat region was mainly influenced by the Gandhara and Gupta styles. Since the 6th century, Buddhist statues in the Swat region have developed into an independent art form, which not only absorbed the Gandhara and Gupta art styles, but also combined with Central Asian art to form a unique Swat style. Its statues have a strong sense of three-dimensionality, simple style, and attention to detailed depiction, which to a certain extent retains the legacy of Gandhara statues. This style of iconography continued until the 10th century and had an influence on Kashmir and western Tibet in China.
This statue has screw hair, an oval face, slightly open eyes, full lips, and a calm and dignified demeanor. Dressed in a shoulder-length cassock, he holds the corner of his robe with his left hand and gives a wish seal with his right hand, and sits on an oval-shaped rosette. The rosette is a deep girdle with large, full petals, a common rosette form in the Swat region. The cassocks of Shakyamuni Buddha have a thick texture and retain the characteristics of Gandhara art, but the regular lines of the cassocks are the embodiment of Gupta style.
The founder of Buddhism, Shakyamuni (5 6 5-4 8 5 BC), was the crown prince of the ancient Indian kingdom of Kapila, who became a monk in search of relief from life's sufferings, and after six years of hard practice, finally became a Buddha. According to Buddhist teachings, a Buddha is a human being, not a creator, and although he has superhuman wisdom and ability, he cannot dominate the good fortunes of man. When the Buddha image appeared, the Buddha was deified as the supreme deity. With the secularization and popularization of Buddhist beliefs, Buddha has taken on a new meaning, and the number of Buddhas has also increased, and Buddhist image theories such as the seven Buddhas in time, the three thousand Buddhas in the third life, and the ten Buddhas in space have appeared. Shakyamuni Buddha also became one of many Buddhas, a Buddha who exists in this world.
The statue has a square face, large eyes set with silver, a short and flat nose, and a red copper lip. The right shoulder, the cassock, the pattern of the cassock is indicated by a regular arc. Hold the corner of the garment in your left hand, apply the ground seal with your right hand, and sit on an oval-shaped girdle lotus seat. The statue uses silver inlay technology, which is typical of Swat statue style.
The 6th-8th centuries were the formation and initial development of the Swat iconographic style, and the 8th-9th centuries were the heyday and decline of its development. According to statistics, there are less than 100 Swat-style Buddha statues collected around the world.
Maitreya wears a three-leaf crown on his head, and the braid on the back of his head is bead-shaped. The face is plump and the eyes are inlaid with silver. Topless, skirted, knotted and sitting on a lotus seat. Hold the bottle with your left hand and raise your right hand up to your shoulder. The rosette is an oval deep girdle covered with lotus with full, stretched petals, which is a popular style for Swat statues in the 7th-9th centuries. Maitreya is marked by a clean bottle and a pagoda.
Maitreya is one of the "future Buddhas" that Mahayana Buddhism calls and has two forms: bodhisattva and Buddha. Before becoming a Buddha, Maitreya wore a bodhisattva costume, a crown on his head, a jeweled body, and sat on his knees, which is based on the Maitreya Sutra of Living as a bodhisattva who lived in the day of the Upper Life as a supplementary bodhisattva. Maitreya dressed as a Buddha after becoming a Buddha, according to the Maitreya Sutra, Maitreya was born in the world of Baba 5.67 billion years later, and became a Buddha after Shakyamuni.
3. Buddhist statues in Kashmir
Kashmir is located in the western part of the Himalayas, and ancient Chinese texts used to call Kashmira and Popin. It is part of ancient Gandhara and was once the center of Buddhism in northwest India. The region's imagery is derived from Gandhara art and is influenced by the Gupta period of the Mulgara style and the Sarnatian style. From the 6th century, Kashmir began to independently create local style statues, and by the 7th and 8th centuries, the Kashmiri style was formed. Its Buddha statue is characterized by a long round face, eyes that are very prominent on the face, and the eyes are large and blank, as if surprised. The eyes, lips, white and other parts are decorated with silver and red copper. The statue is full-bodied, with a right shoulder or a robe over the shoulder. The cassock is light and thin, and only the garment pattern is engraved at the edge of the garment. The head light and backlight of the statue are used a lot, and the hollow shape is common. Rectangular pedestals are characteristic of Kashmiri statues, dominated by column-style partitions or lux lifts. Buddhist statues in Kashmir are mostly made of brass and are meticulously crafted, which has a profound impact on the statues in Tibet, China.
This statue has a square face, a face of mud gold, silver eyes and red copper lips. With his left hand holding the corner of his clothes, his right hand applying the Fearless Seal, he sits on a rectangular pedestal. The pedestal is held up by Lux, and the left and right lions protect the Dharma. Shakyamuni Buddha wore a right-shoulder cassock that fits snugly to the body and has no clothing lines, which is characteristic of the Gupta style.
After the 7th century, Kashmir created a unique rectangular lion pedestal form, with two humble lions in the middle of which there is a Lux two-handed pedestal and a cushion placed on the seat.
Shakyamuni Buddha wore a three-leaf crown with silver inlaid eyes and white eyes. Dressed in a natural robe, with smooth pleats and gorgeous decorations. The hands knot the seal, and the knot sits on a rectangular pedestal. The pedestal has four pillars on the front, with a Lux lift in the middle and a lion protector on both sides. There is a headlight and a backlight behind the Buddha statue, the outer edge of the backlight is a flame pattern, and the inner is a plum blossom pattern; The exterior of the headlight is flame pattern, and the interior is beaded. The silver-inlaid technique and gourd-shaped backlit form of the statue are characteristic of Kashmir.
The emergence of this type of crowned Buddha is related to the formation of esotericism. Esoteric Buddhism is the product of the fusion of Indian Buddhism, Hinduism and Indian folk beliefs, with mantras, rituals and secular beliefs as the main features, preaching the oral recitation of mantras (language secret), hand knot seal (body secret) and mind visualization (Yi tantra), and the three tantras can be combined to become a Buddha. Before the advent of esotericism, Buddha statues wore only cassocks and did not wear any ornaments. After the formation of esotericism in the 7th century, Buddha statues began to pursue luxurious decorations, not only wearing crowns, but also wearing ornate and valuable ornaments on various parts of the body. The image of the Buddha was later introduced to Tibet in China, northwest India and Central Asia.
4. Buddhist statues in Northeast India
The Northeast India region mainly refers to the area around present-day Bihar, West Bengal and Bangladesh, which was once the center of Buddhist esotericism in India. 7-1 3rd centuries AD, the Baltic dynasty (c. 750-1150) ruled here and created the last splendor of Indian Buddhist figurative art, the Baltic style. Based on the Gupta style, it incorporates the local characteristics of Northeast India, and the appearance of the statue has Indian characteristics, with prominent upper eyelids, large eyes, and rich lips. The body curves are smooth and rounded, and the thin clothes are close, and simple lines are only depicted on the shoulders and legs. The Buddhist statue style of Northeast India has a certain influence on statue making in Tibet, China.
Wearing a crown on his head and a fist seal with his hands, Pilu Buddha sits on a lotus throne. The Buddha statue is flanked by a tower-like decoration on each side, with a back in the form of a common Baltic tool: a golden-winged bird directly above, a Capricorn above each shoulder-parallel beam, and a lion and sheep standing on their backs below the beam.
The emergence of Pilu Buddha represents the formation of an esoteric system of thought in Indian Buddhism. At the beginning of its founding, Esoteric Buddhism was secretly circulated, until after the 7th century, the influence of Esoteric Buddhism expanded and it was able to spread publicly. The symbol of the perfection of the esoteric system is the establishment of the five-sided Buddha as the core of the divine system, the five Buddhas with the Pilu Buddha as the center, the Ah Kun Buddha in the east, the Baosheng Buddha in the south, the Amitabha Buddha in the west, and the Buddha in the north. The five Buddhas live in different Buddha countries, and have their own bodhisattvas, concubines, protectors and other dependents. Pilu Buddha wears a crown on his head and turquoise at the top of his bun. The facial features are angular, and the eyes are inlaid with silver, which has the characteristics of Indians. The bao behind both ears is fan-shaped and distinctive. Upper body,
The skirt is lowered, and the drapery falls from the shoulders, and hangs around the back of the arms on the pedestal. Hands knot wisdom fist seal, knot kneels on the lotus seat.
Pilu Buddha wears a crown on his head and turquoise at the top of his bun. The facial features are angular, and the eyes are inlaid with silver, which has the characteristics of Indians. The bao behind both ears is fan-shaped and distinctive. Upper body,
The skirt is lowered, and the drapery falls from the shoulders, and hangs around the back of the arms on the pedestal. Hands knot wisdom fist seal, knot kneels on the lotus seat.
This statue has a square face, large eyes, a straight nose, and a wide mouth. Dressed in a cassock, the cassock is light and thin, with raised lines on the edges. The left hand knots the meditation seal, the right hand applies the touching seal, and the knot sits on the lotus seat. The thin fitting and tall pedestal are the embodiment of the Baltic style of Northeast India.
Guanyin Bodhisattva has high flat hair and slender eyes, sitting in a playful position.
Avalokiteshvara is one of the bodhisattvas with great influence. Bodhisattva means enlightened person who can combine wisdom with compassion. Bodhisattvas come to earth in various images to guide people to find the way to liberation; They shoulder the important responsibility of saving all sentient beings and are the actual executors of the spread and teachings of Buddhism. In Buddhism, there are eight bodhisattvas commonly seen, namely Avalokiteshvara, Puxian, Manjushri, Maitreya, Vajrapani, Jizo, Void Hide, and Barrier Removal.
5. Buddhist statues in Nepal
Nepal is located in the southern foothills of the middle Himalayas, surrounded by India on the east, west and south. This is the birthplace of Buddhism, and Lumbini, the birthplace of Shakyamuni, is in present-day Nepal. Nepalese Buddhist statue art mainly inherits the artistic style of the Gupta era in India, focusing on the expression of the full body, the clothing is mainly thin clothing, rarely depicting clothing patterns, only at the cuffs and skirts with fine floral patterns carved with black threads. The statue mostly uses red copper, and the process is fine. After the 13th century, Nepalese statues had an influence on the style of statues in Tibet and the interior of China.
This statue has high hair and an oval flame pattern behind the head. Cover the bodice, necklace, armband. The lotus bud is held in the right hand and supported on the side of the body with the left hand. Round rosette with broad and thick petals, three tendons engraved on the leaf surface. This form of rosette and headlight is commonly found in Nepalese statues of the 8th and 9th centuries.
Guanyin Bodhisattva, also translated as Guanyin Bodhisattva and Guanyin Bodhisattva, is the most important deity in Buddhism and the most widely believed deity for his compassion for the relief of all sentient beings. There are many images of Guanyin Bodhisattva, including Guanyin holding a lotus, Guanyin with a lion roar, Guanyin with four faces, Guanyin with eleven faces, and Guanyin with a thousand hands and thousand eyes. The founder of the Tubo Dynasty in Tibet, Songtsen Gampo and the Dalai Lama, are also seen as incarnations of Guanyin.
Guanyin Bodhisattva wears a crown on his head, his upper body is exposed, his right hand is given a wish seal, and his left hand holds a lotus flower on his side, sitting on a lotus throne. Oval backlight, simple and elegant. The lotus petals are large and paved, on the lotus petals
Depicting three leaf tendons, this lotus petal is a characteristic of Nepalese statues.
Since Songtsen Gampo married a Nepalese princess into Tibet, Nepalese craftsmen began to sculpt Buddha statues in Tibet, and after the 12th century, Indian Buddhism was destroyed by the invasion of Islam
A place for the creation of Nepalese artisans.
This statue has a meditation seal in his left hand, a touching seal with his right hand, and sitting on a Vajra throne. In the middle of the Vajra throne is engraved the scene of the Buddha becoming enlightened and Moro stopping the failure, and there are elephants and lions protecting the Dharma on both sides.
This statue has broad shoulders, a full chest, and thick legs, which has the characteristics of Nepalese statues. The right-shoulder cassock depicts only the edges and is a continuation of the Sarnat style of the Gupta period in India.
Amitabha Buddha wears a three-leaf crown on his head, a diagonal drapery, a long carved skirt at the bottom, and sits on a cushion with a meditation seal with his hands knotted, and the cushion is a Meru seat. A sitting blanket hangs in the middle of the front of Meru-za, and peacocks are on both sides of the seat. The peacock is the symbol of Amitabha Buddha.
The Buddha wears a three-leaf crown on his head, a meditation seal in his left hand, a wish seal with his right hand, and a knot sitting on a mat under which is a Meru seat. A blanket hangs in the middle of the front of the Meru-za, and a reclining horse is flanked by the lower seat.
The Buddha is one of the five Buddhas, living in the south and representing equal intelligence.
2. The style of Buddhist statues in the mainland
Like the first teachings of the gods and Buddhas mixed - the two Han Dynasties, the Three Kingdoms and the Western Jin Dynasty
Statues of the Two Han Dynasties, Three Kingdoms, and Western Jin Dynasty
2. Chaos begins to open the Buddha statue alone - the statue of the Sixteen Kingdoms of the Eastern Jin Dynasty
Statues of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Sixteen Kingdoms
3. Hua-Van Mutual Images - Statues of the North and South Dynasties
Northern Dynasty statues, Northern Wei statues, Eastern Wei and Northern Qi statues, Western Wei and Northern Zhou statues, Southern Dynasty statues
4. Plump and healthy and prosperous weather - Sui and Tang statues
Sui Dynasty Statues, Tang Dynasty Statues: Early Tang Dynasty Statues, Sheng Tang Dynasty Statues, Middle Tang Dynasty Statues, Late Tang Dynasty Statues, Tang Dynasty Statues Theme, Form and Regional Characteristics
5. Birth and entry into the world realistic fashion - five dynasties and ten kingdoms and two song dynasty statues
The statues of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and the Song Dynasty, the Song Dynasty was divided into north and south
6. Learn from the Tang and Song dynasties, each exhibiting the style of Liao, Jin, Xixia and Dali statues
Liao Dynasty statues, Jin Dynasty statues, Western Xia statues
7. Fanxiang came east to reopen a new wind - statues made in the Yuan Dynasty
The art of Tibetan statue making in the Yuan Dynasty was introduced to the mainland, the influence of Tibetan statue making in the Yuan Dynasty on traditional statue making in the mainland, and the traditional statue making in the mainland of the Yuan Dynasty
8. Convergence of Sino-Tibetan fusion styles - Ming, Qing and Republican statues
Ming Dynasty statue making style, Qing Dynasty statue making style, Ming and Qing dynasty and the Republic of China folk statues
3. The style of Tibetan Buddhist statues in various places
Before the 11th century, Tibetan Buddhist statues mainly imitated the artistic styles of India, Nepal and other places, showing a trend of diversification. After the 14th century, the artistic style of Tibetan native statues gradually took shape, reaching its artistic peak in the 15th and 16th centuries. Due to different regions, Tibetan Buddhist statues have appeared in western Tibet, central Tibet, eastern Tibet, Mongolia and other regional styles. After the 17th century, Tibetan Buddhist statues mostly pursued appearance decoration and tended to be stylized, but the statues of high monks adopted superb realistic techniques and had a high artistic level.